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Dynamic ordering decisions with approximate learning of supply yield uncertainty

We consider the real-life problem of a coach bus manufacturer located in Turkey, facing the problem of setting ordering quantities for a part procured from an unreliable supplier, where the number of items delivered is binomially distributed with an unknown yield parameter, p . We use the well-defined finite-horizon planning context with deterministic demand per period, purchasing, holding, and shortage costs to investigate the effectiveness of a fill-rate based approximate learning scheme in comparison to an exact Bayesian learning scheme, where observations on the supplier's delivery performance are used to update the assumed distribution of p . We formulate the exact optimal learning problem as a Bayes-adaptive Markov decision process and solve the corresponding finite horizon stochastic dynamic program to provide insights on the value of online learning in comparison to the unrealistic perfect information ( PI ) and no information ( NT ) benchmarks. We contrast the performance of the so-called Bayesian Updating ( BU ) policy to other practical approaches such as using an assumed/guessed value of p and implementing a constant safety stock. Noting the significant value of learning, we finally study the effectiveness of an approximate learning formulation that does not enjoy the asymptotic consistency and convergence properties but involves much lower computational burden, and demonstrate its confounding performance, at times beating the BU policy with exact Bayesian updates.

International Journal of Production Economics EI,SCIE | 2022 | 243

Effect of equal channel angular pressing on microstructure evolution and properties variations of a CuCrZrY alloy

The microstructural evolutions and properties variations of a CuCrZrY alloy processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) with different passes were studied systematically. After 4 passes of ECAP, the average grain size was decreased to 500 nm, and the grain size distribution became more uniform during the subsequent processing. After 8 passes ECAP-ed and aged at 400 °C for 7 h, the samples' tensile strength and electrical conductivity are 560 MPa and 86.4%IACS. The main strengthening mechanisms are precipitation strengthening, low-angle grain boundary strengthening, and high-angle grain boundary strengthening (about 82% in total). Finite element simulation was carried out through ABAQUS to obtain the equivalent strain distribution diagram of ECAP, resulting in that the strain force of the outer region was less than that of the inner one. The inconsistency of deformation leads to the inhomogeneity of microstructure. These findings will effectively guide researchers to develop high-strength high-electrical conductivity copper alloys.

Journal of Alloys and Compounds EI,SCI,SCIE | 2022 | 894

Crack tip monitoring by multiscale optical experimental techniques

This study focuses on the development of a complementary fatigue crack-tip evaluation approach with multiscale optical techniques with different resolutions. A middle tension (MT) specimen, of aluminium alloy AA6082-T6, was prepared and submitted to a cyclic fatigue loading to generate a fatigue crack. Then, it was statically loaded under a uniaxial tensile condition, and two non-contact full-field optical techniques, Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI), were employed to acquire the experimental data. While the specimen is loaded with incremental force values, the behaviour of the cracked area is monitored, with displacement and deformation fields acquired for each force increment. The obtained data is thereby used to calculate the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) and monitor the crack opening evolution. An overdeterministic algorithm was developed for the SIF determination. The main contribution of the present work is the development of a complementary multiscale methodology, which employs available techniques with different resolutions to monitor the tip of a fatigue crack, drawing a comparison between calculated parameters for each system to shift from one technique to the higher resolution one and validating the proposed methodologies. The obtained SIF values are compared to the reference solution proposed by ASTM E647, and an acceptable agreement has been verified amongst the results.

International Journal of Fatigue EI,SCI,SCIE | 2022 | 155

TaintBench: Automatic real-world malware benchmarking of Android taint analyses

Due to the lack of established real-world benchmark suites for static taint analyses of Android applications, evaluations of these analyses are often restricted and hard to compare. Even in evaluations that do use real-world apps, details about the ground truth in those apps are rarely documented, which makes it difficult to compare and reproduce the results. To push Android taint analysis research forward, this paper thus recommends criteria for constructing real-world benchmark suites for this specific domain, and presents TaintBench, the first real-world malware benchmark suite with documented taint flows. TaintBench benchmark apps include taint flows with complex structures, and addresses static challenges that are commonly agreed on by the community. Together with the TaintBench suite, we introduce the TaintBench framework, whose goal is to simplify real-world benchmarking of Android taint analyses. First, a usability test shows that the framework improves experts' performance and perceived usability when documenting and inspecting taint flows. Second, experiments using TaintBench reveal new insights for the taint analysis tools Amandroid and FlowDroid: (i) They are less effective on real-world malware apps than on synthetic benchmark apps. (ii) Predefined lists of sources and sinks heavily impact the tools' accuracy. (iii) Surprisingly, up-to-date versions of both tools are less accurate than their predecessors.

Empirical software engineering (Print) EI,SCIE | 2022 | 27 (1)

Modeling ultrasonic vibration fatigue with unified mechanics theory

A series of ultrasonic vibration tests are performed on A656 grade steel samples, at a frequency of 20 kHz. A fatigue life model based on the unified mechanics theory is introduced to predict the very high cycle fatigue life of metals. Then, the fatigue life test data results are compared with the unified mechanics theory based model simulation results. It is shown that the physics-based unified mechanics theory can predict very high cycle fatigue life very well, without the need for the traditional empirical curve fitting a fatigue damage evolution function. The model does not require any curve fitting parameters obtained from fatigue test data. However, it does require deriving analytical thermodynamic fundamental equation of the material subjected to ultrasonic vibration fatigue. The thermodynamic fundamental equation of the material formulates the entropy generation mechanisms during the fatigue process. There are more than half a dozen entropy generation mechanisms during fatigue process. Entropy is an additive property, hence, the entropy generation due to all active mechanisms can be added.

International Journal of Solids and Structures EI,SCI,SCIE | 2022 | 236